After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote a book about relativity for a popular audience. His intention was 'to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general scientific and philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics.' The book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. In the early 1920s alone, it was translated into ten languages, and fifteen editions in the original German appeared over the course of Einstein's lifetime. The theory of relativity enriched physics and astronomy during the 20th century.
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Best known for his general theory of relativity and the famous equation linking mass and energy, E = mc, Albert Einstein had a lasting impact on the world of science, the extent of which is illuminated--along with his fascinating life and unique personality--in this lively history. In addition to learning all about Einstein's important contributions to science, from proving the existence and size of atoms and launching the field of quantum mechanics to creating models of the universe that led to the discovery of black holes and the big bang theory, young physicists will participate in activities and thought experiments to bring his theories and ideas to life. Such activities include using dominoes to model a nuclear chain reaction, replicating the expanding universe in a microwave oven, creating blue skies and red sunsets in a soda bottle, and calculating the speed of light using a melted chocolate bar. Suggestions for further study, a time line, and sidebars on the work of other physicists of the day make this an incredibly accessible resource for inquisitive children.
Traces the life and work of the physicist whose theory of relativity revolutionized scientific thinking.
E=mc2 is the world’s most famous equation. Discover the thought process and physics behind general relativity and Einstein’s contribution to science, in this authorized edition. In this collection of his seven most important essays on physics, Einstein guides his reader step-by-step through the many layers of scientific theory that formed a starting point for his discoveries. By both supporting and refuting the theories and scientific efforts of his predecessors, Einstein reveals in a clear voice the origins and meaning of such significant topics as physics and reality, the fundamentals of theoretical physics, the common language of science, the laws of science and of ethics, and an elementary derivation of the equivalence of mass and energy. This remarkable collection allows the general reader to understand not only the significance of Einstein’s masterpiece, but also the brilliant mind behind it. This authorized ebook features a new introduction by Neil Berger and an illustrated biography of Albert Einstein, which includes rare photos and never-before-seen documents from the Albert Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Provides a biography of Albert Einstein, traces the development of his ideas, and assesses their impact on science and society
What exactly did Einstein do that's so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Although the book is written with primarily a physics readership in mind (it can also function as a textbook), enough pedagogical support material is provided that anyone with a solid background in introductory physics (say, an engineer) can, with someeffort, understand a good part this presentation.We show why Einstein's papers were decisive to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms; why is he regarded as a foundingfather of quantum theory; how did his relativity theory bring about the new understanding that time, just like space, is relative; and how did his general relativity extend Newton's theory to new physical realm, allowing us to study black holes and cosmology.
An analysis of one of the three great papers Einstein published in 1905, each of which was to alter forever the field it dealt with. The second of these papers, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", established what Einstein sometimes referred to as the "so-called Theory of Relativity". Miller uses the paper to provide a window on the intense intellectual struggles of physicists in the first decade of the 20th century: the interplay between physical theory and empirical data; the fiercely held notions that could not be articulated clearly or verified experimentally; the great intellectual investment in existing theories, data, and interpretations - and associated intellectual inertia - and the drive to the long-sought-for unification of the sciences. Since its original publication, this book has become a standard reference and sourcebook for the history and philosophy of science; however, it can equally well serve as a text on twentieth-century philosophy.
Understand how Einstein came to write the most famous equation in history and see how the world was changed forever. Broken into 10 bite-sized chapters, this step-by-step journey through Einstein's mind takes his original manuscripts and makes them accessible to budding scientists everywhere.
Albert Einstein's restless intelligence drove him to ponder the biggest topics the universe has to offer: light, time, mass, energy, and more. His conclusions changed the way people thought about the laws of physics. But first, he had to pass his university entrance exams. This graphic biography traces Einstein's path from his home country of Germany to his studies in Switzerland to his time in the United States. It also follows his life as an international scientific celebrity and his refusal to stay silent in the face of anti-Semitism.
Albert Einstein rewrote the rules of physics and changed how scientists see space and time forever. Learn how a boy who struggled in school became one of history's most renowned scientists.
- Author : Albert Einstein
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 2003
- Genre : Science
- Pages : 174
- ISBN : UOM:39015059307192
The influence of Einstein's contributions on so many branches of physics is such that if one wanted to describe its full extent, it would be hard to know where to begin. His work and discoveries are so fundamental that each achievement alone would have guaranteed him a prominent place in the history of physics. But what brought him unprecedented fame outside his own discipline is undoubtedly his theory of relativity, which revolutionized the old, established Newtonian picture of space, time, and gravitations. Professor Hanoch Gutfreund, from the Introduction This volume presents Albert Einstein's 1912 manuscript on the special theory of relativity, one of the most revolutionary and influential scientific documents of the twentieth century. It includes faithful reproductions of each of the seventy-two handwritten pages along with an English translation of the original German text. A tribute to Einstein's genius, the book opens with a brief essay by Hanoch Gutfreund, a chronology of Einstein's life, a selection of quotes by Einstein, and, to introduce the manuscript, a detailed description of the manuscript, its contents, publication history, and provenance. The manuscript pages themselves then follow, reproduced in full colour, with the English translation facing each page. Subtle variations in paper and ink are clearly visible in the excellent reproductions, indicating where and when Einstein drafted certain parts of it. Because the manuscript shows extensive reworking, it reveals Einstein's thought processes more than any other of his handwritten works. Einstein's 1912 Manuscript provides a glimpse into one of the greatest minds of the last century.
Several distinguished scientists explain and expand upon the theory that revolutionized scientific theory, defining gravity and the meaning of relativity and assessing the theory's impact on various scientific disciplines
- Author : Galina Weinstein
- Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
- Release Date : 2015-06-18
- Genre : Science
- Pages : 360
- ISBN : 9781443878890
This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein’s journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flung them in the waste paper basket in the Patent Office. The end result was that Einstein published nothing regarding the special theory of relativity prior to 1905. For many years before 1905, he had been intensely concerned with the topic; in fact, he was busily working on the problem for seven or eight years prior to 1905. Unfortunately, there are no surviving notebooks and manuscripts, no notes and papers or other primary sources from this critical period to provide any information about the crucial steps that led Einstein to his great discovery. In May 1905, Henri Poincaré sent three letters to Hendrik Lorentz at the same time that Einstein wrote his famous May 1905 letter to Conrad Habicht, promising him four works, of which the fourth one, Relativity, was a rough draft at that point. In the May 1905 letters to Lorentz, Poincaré presented the basic equations of his 1905 “Dynamics of the Electron”, meaning that, at this point, Poincaré and Einstein both had drafts of papers relating to the principle of relativity. The book discusses Einstein’s and Poincaré’s creativity and the process by which their ideas developed. The book also explores the misunderstandings and paradoxes apparent in the theory of relativity, and unravels the subtleties and creativity of Einstein.
Here are the 11 papers that forged the general and special theories of relativity: seven papers by Einstein, plus two papers by Lorentz and one each by Minkowski and Weyl. "A thrill to read again the original papers by these giants." — School Science and Mathematics. 1923 edition.
When the author of Identity and Reality accepted Langevin's suggestion that Meyerson "identify the thought processes" of Einstein's relativity theory, he turned from his assured perspective as historian of the sciences to the risky bias of contemporary philosophical critic. But Emile Meyerson, the epis temologist as historian, could not find a more rigorous test of his conclusions from historical learning than the interpretation of Einstein's work, unless perhaps he were to turn from the classical revolution of Einstein's relativity to the non-classical quantum theory. Meyerson captures our sympathy in all his writings: " . . . the role of the epistemologist is . . . in following the development of science" (250); the study of the evolution of reason leads us to see that "man does not experience himself reasoning . . . which is carried on unconsciously," and as the summation of his empirical studies of the works and practices of scientists, "reason . . . behaves in an altogether predict able way: . . . first by making the consequent equivalent to the antecedent, and then by actually denying all diversity in space" (202). If logic - and to Meyerson the epistemologist is logician - is to understand reason, then "logic proceeds a posteriori. " And so we are faced with an empirically based Par menides, and, as we shall see, with an ineliminable 'irrational' within science. Meyerson's story, written in 1924, is still exciting, 60 years later.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity applies to all physical phenomena in the absence of gravity. General relativity explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature. It applies to the cosmological and astrophysical realm, including astronomy.The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton. It introduced concepts including spacetime as a unified entity of space and time, relativity of simultaneity, kinematic and gravitational time dilation, and length contraction. In the field of physics, relativity improved the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with ushering in the nuclear age. With relativity, cosmology and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars, black holes, and gravitational waves.