The Persian War was one of the most significant events in ancient history. It halted Persia's westward expansion, inspired the Golden Age of Greece, and propelled Athens to the heights of power. From the end of the war almost to the end of antiquity, the Greeks and later the Romans recalled the battles and heroes of this war with unabated zeal. The resulting monuments and narratives have long been used to reconstruct the history of the war itself, but they have only recently begun to be used to explore how the conflict was remembered over time. States of Memory focuses on the initial recollection of the war in the classical period down to the Lamian War (480-322 BCE). Drawing together recent work on memory theory and a wide range of ancient evidence, Yates argues that the Greek memory of the war was deeply divided from the outset. Despite the panhellenic scope of the conflict, the Greeks very rarely recalled the war as Greeks. Instead they presented themselves as members of their respective city-states. What emerged was a tangled web of idiosyncratic stories about the Persian War that competed with each other fiercely throughout the classical period. It was not until Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the Great dealt a devastating blow to the very notion of the independent city-state at the battle of Chaeronea that anything like a unified memory of the Persian War came to dominate the tradition.
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- Author : John Mace
- Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
- Release Date : 2019-10-15
- Genre : Medical
- Pages : 224
- ISBN : 9780198784845
The topic of autobiographical memory has held a prominent role in memory research for the past 30 years, as it has proven indispensable to the understanding of human memory and cognition. An important focus of autobiographical memory research is uncovering the basic structure, nature, and organization of the autobiographical memory system. This book explores the organization and structure of autobiographical memory. Based on over thirty years of research, and the latest empirical findings, it presents the major theories and problems in the science of autobiographical memory organization. At its core are two influential global views on the organization, structure, and function of autobiographical memory (chapters 2 and 3). In addition, the volume examines the organization of autobiographical memory from a developmental perspective (chapter 4). It includes a chapter examining the neuroscience of autobiographical memory organization (chapter 7), and a chapter examining organization from a functional perspective (chapter 6). Also covered is the role of culture in forming autobiographical memory (chapter 5), the role of the self in organizing autobiographical memory (chapter 8), insights from the reminiscence bump on organization (chapter 9), and a chapter on the organization of episodic autobiographical memories (chapter 10). For students and researcher with an interest in memory, the volume is a timely and important addition to their literature.
"An argument to view memory as predicting the future, rather than merely archiving the past. Based on experimental evidence from psychology and neuroscience"--
This monograph explores how the constitutional courts in the United States, Germany, and South Africa have invoked slavery, Nazism, and apartheid - three historical evils - as an aid in constitutional interpretation. It examines how the memory of evil pasts moulds constitutional meaning in the contested present.
"A book about the influence of estrogens on memory would have been unthinkable as recently as 30 years ago. Although a few small studies in the late 1970's reported a beneficial effect of estrogens on memory in human women (Hackman and Galbraith, 1976; Fedor-Freybergh, 1977), examination of the role of estrogens in memory did not truly capture more widespread attention until the pioneering work of Barbara Sherwin and colleagues in 1988 and beyond. In her initial paper, Sherwin showed that bilateral removal of the ovaries (aka surgical menopause) led to impaired short-term and long-term memory, whereas treatment of surgically menopausal women with estradiol alone, testosterone alone, or estradiol plus testosterone prevented this decline (Sherwin, 1988). As a search for the terms "estrogen" and "memory" in PubMed illustrates, well over 2000 papers have been published on the subject of estrogens and memory in the ensuing decades. The vast majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus, a bilateral medial temporal lobe structure essential for the formation of episodic memories, particularly those with spatial, contextual, relational, temporal, and recognition components (Olton et al., 1979; Morris et al., 1982; Kim and Fanselow, 1992; Squire, 1992; Cohen and Stackman, 2015; Tonegawa et al., 2015; Eichenbaum, 2017). Although various forms of learning and memory are mediated by numerous brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobe cortices, amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum, the hippocampus has received the lion's share of attention due to its central importance for episodic memory formation. Hippocampal damage produces profound retrograde amnesia for facts and events, as well as anterograde amnesia for new information and impairments in spatial navigation (Winocur, 1990; Anagnostaras et al., 2001; Clark et al., 2002; Gilboa et al., 2006). Hippocampal dysfunction in middle-aged and aged subjects is a primary contributor to age-related m
- Author : E. C. H.
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1860
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 231
- ISBN : BL:A0018624729
The Strength of Christ in Man s Weakness A Tribute to the Memory of the Late Bishop Mackenzie a Sermon on 1 Cor X 12 With an Appendix Containing One of the Bishop s Last Letters
- Author : George Hunt SMYTTAN
- Publisher : Unknown
- Release Date : 1862
- Genre : Uncategorized
- Pages : 231
- ISBN : BL:A0019168483
These essays survey the histories, the theories and the fault lines that compose the field of memory research. Drawing on the advances in the sciences and in the humanities, they address the question of how memory works, highlighting transactions between the interiority of subjective memory and the larger fields of public or collective memory.
This Very Short Introduction brings together the latest research in neuroscience and psychology - weaving in case-studies, anecdotes, literature, and philosophy - to explore and explain the science of memory - how it works, and why we can't live without it.
There are few terms or concepts that have, in the last twenty or so years, rivaled "collective memory" for attention in the humanities and social sciences. Indeed, use of the term has extended far beyond scholarship to the realm of politics and journalism, where it has appeared in speeches atthe centers of power and on the front pages of the world's leading newspapers. The current efflorescence of interest in memory, however, is no mere passing fad: it is a hallmark characteristic of our age and a crucial site for understanding our present social, political, and cultural conditions.Scholars and others in numerous fields have thus employed the concept of collective memory, sociological in origin, to guide their inquiries into diverse, though allegedly connected, phenomena. Nevertheless, there remains a great deal of confusion about the meaning, origin, and implication of theterm and the field of inquiry it underwrites.The Collective Memory Reader presents, organizes, and evaluates past work and contemporary contributions on the questions raised under the rubric of collective memory. Combining seminal texts, hard-to-find classics, previously untranslated references, and contemporary landmarks, it will serve as anessential resource for teaching and research in the field. In addition, in both its selections as well as in its editorial materials, it suggests a novel life-story for the field, one that appreciates recent innovations but only against the background of a long history.In addition to its major editorial introduction, which outlines a useful past for contemporary memory studies, The Collective Memory Reader includes five sections - Precursors and Classics; History, Memory, and Identity; Power, Politics, and Contestation; Media and Modes of Transmission; Memory,Justice, and the Contemporary Epoch - comprising ninety-one texts. In addition to the essay introducing the entire volume, a brief editorial essay introduces each of the sections, while brief capsules fra
How do we use our mental images of the present to reconstruct our past? This volume, the first comprehensive English language translation of Maurice Halbwach's writings on the social construction of memory, fills a major gap in the literature on the sociology of knowledge.
The strengths and weaknesses of human memory have fascinated people for hundreds of years, so it is not surprising that memory research has remained one of the most flourishing areas in science. During the last decade, however, a genuine science of memory has emerged, resulting in research and theories that are rich, complex, and far reaching in their implications. Endel Tulving and Fergus Craik, both leaders in memory research, have created this highly accessible guide to their field. In each chapter, eminent researchers provide insights into their particular areas of expertise in memory research. Together, the chapters in this handbook lay out the theories and presents the evidence on which they are based, highlights the important new discoveries, and defines their consequences for professionals and students in psychology, neuroscience, clinical medicine, law, and engineering.
Landmark study of World War I, describing its effects on the nation.
- Author : Raphael Samuel
- Publisher : Verso
- Release Date : 1996
- Genre : History
- Pages : 496
- ISBN : 1859840779
This work offers an overview of how the past has been manipulated in art, politicized and sold to the consumer, yet takes issue with those who claim this interest in heritage is merely obsessive nostalgia. The author covers a multitude of topics, such as the Festival of Britain and conservation.
"South Africa possesses one of the richest popular music traditions in the world - from marabi to mbaqanga, from boeremusiek to bubblegum, from kwela to kwaito. Yet the risk that future generations of South Africans will not know their musical roots is very real. Of all the recordings made here since the 1930s, thousands have been lost for ever, for the powers-that-be never deemed them worthy of preservation. If one peruses the books that exist on South African popular music, one still finds that their authors have on occasion jumped to conclusions that were not as foregone as they had assumed. Yet the fault lies not with them, rather in the fact that there has been precious little documentation in South Africa of who played what, or who recorded what, with whom, and when. This is true of all music-making in this country, though it is most striking in the music of the black communities. Beyond memory: recording the history, moments and memories of South African music is an invaluable publication becauseit offers a first-hand account of the South African music scene of the past decades from the pen of Max Thamagana Mojapelo, who was situated in the very thick of things, thanks to his job as a DJ at the South African Broadcasting Corporation. This book -astonishing for the breadth of its coverage - is based on his diaries, on interviews he conducted and on numerous other sources, and we find in it not only the well-known names of recent South African music but a countless host of others whose contribution must be recorded if we and future generations are to gain an accurate picture of South African music history of the late 20th and early 21st centuries"--Publisher's description.
Much of the intense current interest in collective memory concerns the politics of memory. In a book that asks, "Is there an ethics of memory?" Avishai Margalit addresses a separate, perhaps more pressing, set of concerns. The idea he pursues is that the past, connecting people to each other, makes possible the kinds of "thick" relations we can call truly ethical. Thick relations, he argues, are those that we have with family and friends, lovers and neighbors, our tribe and our nation--and they are all dependent on shared memories. But we also have "thin" relations with total strangers, people with whom we have nothing in common except our common humanity. A central idea of the ethics of memory is that when radical evil attacks our shared humanity, we ought as human beings to remember the victims. Margalit's work offers a philosophy for our time, when, in the wake of overwhelming atrocities, memory can seem more crippling than liberating, a force more for revenge than for reconciliation. Morally powerful, deeply learned, and elegantly written, The Ethics of Memory draws on the resources of millennia of Western philosophy and religion to provide us with healing ideas that will engage all of us who care about the nature of our relations to others.
In one of his most important philosophical writings, Henri Bergson here discusses how the matter of the brain and the world external to the body create mental impressions and memories. Matter and Memory, first published in 1912, introduced the current selectionist theories of memory, which postulate that there is a part of the brain that generates all possible images to be stored in memory and a part of the brain that chooses which images to store. Crossing academic disciplines and touching on matters that concern us all-how do we remember, and why?-this essential work will enthrall students of philosophy and psychology and lay readers alike. French philosopher HENRI BERGSON (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1927, and is said to have influenced thinkers such as Marcel Proust, William James, Santayana, and Martin Heidegger. Among his works are Matter and Memory (1896), An Introduction to Metaphysics (1903), and The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (1932).